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Scott Crossley

Associate Professor    
Education

May, 2006: The University of Memphis
Ph.D., English (Concentration in Applied Linguistics)

June, 2002: The University of Memphis
M.A., English (Concentrations in Linguistics and ESL)

June, 2001: California State University of Northridge
State of California Secondary Teaching Credential (Social Studies)

August, 1999: The University of Memphis
TEFL Certificate

June, 1999: California State University of Northridge
B.A., History

Specializations

Natural Language Processing
Application of Computational Tools
Educational Technology
Machine Learning
Second language literacy
Lexical development
Language assessment

Biography

Dr. Scott Crossley is an Associate Professor of Applied Linguistics at Georgia State University. Professor Crossley’s primary research focus is on natural language processing and the application of computational tools and machine learning algorithms in language learning, writing, and text comprehensibility. His main interest area is the development and use of natural language processing tools in assessing writing quality and text difficulty. He is also interested in the development of second language learner lexicons and the potential to examine lexical growth and lexical proficiency using computational algorithms. Professor Crossley works as a senior researcher on Writing Pal, an intelligent tutoring system under development at Arizona State University. His research has appeared in many prestigious journals in the field of discourse processing, language acquisition, composition studies, and reading including Studies in Second Language Acquisition, TESOL Quarterly, Language Learning, The Modern Language Journal, Second Language Research, Language Testing, Written Communication, Behavior Research Methods, Discourse Processing, and the Journal of Reading Research.

Natural Language Processing Tools developed (click on link for free download)

Constructed Response Analysis Tool (CRAT)

Sentiment Analysis and Cognition Engine (SEANCE)

Simple NLP (SiNLP)

Tool for the Automatic Analysis of Lexical Sophistication (TAALES)

Tool for the Automatic Analysis of Text Cohesion (TAACO)

Tool for the Automatic Analysis of Syntactic Sophistication and Complexity (TAASSC)

 

Publications

Books

Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). Adaptive Educational Technologies for Literacy Instruction. New York: Routledge.

Jarvis, S., & Crossley, S. A. (2012). Approaching language transfer through text classification: Explorations in the detection-based approach. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Journal Articles

Crossley, S. A., Kyle, K., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). Sentiment Analysis and Social Cognition Engine (SEANCE): An Automatic Tool for Sentiment, Social Cognition, and Social Order Analysis. Behavior Research Methods.

Crossley, S. A., Kyle, K., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). The Tool for the Automatic Analysis of Text Cohesion (TAACO): Automatic Assessment of Local, Global, and Text Cohesion. Behavior Research Methods.

Crossley, S. A., Kyle, K., & Salsbury, T. (in press). A usage-based investigation of L2 lexical acquisition: The role of input and output. The Modern Language Journal.

Crossley, S. A., Muldner, K., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). Idea generation in student writing: Computational assessments and links to successful writing. Written Communication.

Crossley, S. A., Kyle, K., & McNamara, D. S. (2016). The development and use of cohesive devices in L2 writing and their relations to judgments of essay quality. The Journal of Second Language Writing, 32, 1-16.

Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2016). Say more and be more coherent: How text elaboration and cohesion can increase writing quality. Journal of Writing Research, 7 (3), 351-370.

Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2016). Text-based recall and extra-textual generations resulting from simplified and authentic texts. Reading in a Foreign Language, 28 (1), 1-19.

Frishkoff, G. A., Collins-Thompson, K., Hodges, L., & Crossley, S. (2016). Accuracy feedback improves word learning from context: Evidence from a meaning-generation task. Reading and Writing, 29(4), 609-632. doi:10.1007/s11145-015-9615-7

Kyle, K., Crossley, S.A., & McNamara, D. S. (2016). Construct Validity in TOEFL iBT Speaking Tasks: Insights from Natural Language Processing. Language Testing, 33 (3), 319-340. doi: 10.1177/0265532215587391

Skalicky, S., Berger, C. M., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2016). Linguistic features of humor in academic writing. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 7 (3), 248-259.

Crossley, S. A., Kyle, K., & McNamara, D. S. (2015). To aggregate or not? Linguistic features in automatic essay scoring and feedback systems. Journal of Writing Assessment, 8 (1). [pdf]

Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T., & McNamara, D. S. (2015). Assessing lexical proficiency using analytic ratings: A case for collocation accuracy. Applied Linguistics, 36 (5), 570-590. [pdf]

Kyle, K., & Crossley, S. A. (2015). Automatically Assessing Lexical Sophistication: Indices, Tools, Findings, and Application. TESOL Quarterly, 49 (4), 757-786. [pdf]

Kyle, K., Crossley, S.A., & Kim, Y. (2015). Native language identification and writing proficiency. International Journal of Learner Corpus Research, 1 (2), 187-209. [pdf]

McNamara, D. S., Crossley, S. A., Roscoe, R., Allen, L., Dai, J. (2015). A hierarchical classification approach to automated essay scoring. Assessing Writing, 23 (1), 35-59. [pdf]

Skalicky, S., & Crossley, S. A. (2015). A statistical analysis of satirical Amazon.com product reviews. The European Journal of Humor Research, 2 (3), 66-85. [pdf]

Snow, E., Allen, L. K., Jacovina, M. E., Crossley, S. A., Perret, C., & McNamara, D. S. (2015). Keys to detecting writing flexibility over time: Entropy and natural language processing. Journal of Learning Analytics, 2 (3), 40-54. [pdf]

Allen, L., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). L2 writing practice: Game enjoyment as a key to engagement. Language Learning & Technology, 18 (2), 124-150. [link]

Allen, L. K., Snow, E. L., Jackson, G. T., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). Reading components and their relation to writing. L’Année psychologique/Topics in Cognitive Psychology. 114 (4), 663-691. [link]

Crossley, S. A., Allen, L. K., Kyle, K., & McNamara, D.S. (2014). Analyzing Discourse Processing Using the Simple Natural Language Processing Tool (SiNLP). Discourse Processes, 51 (5-6), 511-534. [doc]

Crossley, S. A., Clevinger, A., & Kim, Y. (2014). The role of lexical properties and cohesive devices in text integration and their effect on human ratings of speaking proficiency. Language Assessment Quarterly, 11 (3), 250-270. [docx]

Crossley, S. A., Roscoe, R., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). What is successful writing? An investigation into the multiple ways writers can write successful essays. Written Communication, 31 (2), 184-215. (Winner of the 2014 John R. Hayes Award for Excellence in Research). [docx]

Crossley, S. A., Kyle, K., Varner, L., Gou, L., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). Linguistic microfeature to predict L2 writing proficiency: A case study in automated writing evaluation. Journal of Writing Assessment. [link]

Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). Does writing development equal writing quality? A computational investigation of syntactic complexity in L2 learners. Journal of Second Language Writing, 26 (4), 66-79. [docx]

Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T., Titak, A., & McNamara, D. S., (2014). Frequency effects and second language lexical acquisition: Word types, word tokens, and word production. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 19 (3), 301-332. [pdf]

Crossley, S. A., Yang, H. S., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). What’s so simple about simplified texts? A computational and psycholinguistic investigation of text comprehension and text processing. Reading in a Foreign Language, 26 (1), 92-113. [pdf]

Roscoe, R. D., Allen, L. K., Weston, J. L., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). The Writing Pal Intelligent Tutoring System: usability testing and development. Computers and Composition, 34, 39-59. [pdf]

Crossley, S. A. (2013). Advancing research in second language writing through computational tools and machine learning techniques: A research agenda. Language Teaching, 46 (2), 256-271. [docx]

Crossley, S. A. (2013). Automatic processing of hypernymic relations in first language speakers and advanced second language learners: A semantic priming approach. Mental Lexicon, 8 (1), 96-116. [pdf]

Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Applications of Text Analysis Tools for Spoken Response Grading. Language Learning & Technology, 17 (2), 171-192. [pdf]

Crossley, S. A., Subtirelu, N., Salsbury, T. (2013). Frequency effects or context effects in second language word learning: What predicts early lexical production? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35 (4), 727-755. [pdf]

Guo, L. Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Predicting human judgments of essay quality in both integrated and independent second language writing samples: A comparison study. Writing Assessment, 18 (3), 218-238. [pdf]

McNamara, D. S., Crossley, S. A., & Roscoe, R. (2013). Natural Language Processing in an Intelligent Writing Strategy Tutoring System. Behavior Research Methods, 45 (2), 499-515.[pdf]

Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2012). Predicting second language writing proficiency: The role of cohesion, readability, and lexical difficulty. Journal of Research in Reading, 35 (2), 115-135.[pdf

Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T., & McNamara, D. S. (2012). Predicting the proficiency level of language learners using lexical indices. Language Testing, 29 (2), 240-260.[pdf]

Crossley, S. A., Allen, D., & McNamara, D. S. (2012). Text simplification and comprehensible input: A case for an intuitive approach. Language Teaching Research, 16 (1), 89-108.[pdf]

Bell, N. D., Crossley, S. A., & Hempelmann, C. F. (2011). Wordplay in church marquees.Humor, 24 (2), 167-185. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Allen, D., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Text readability and intuitive simplification: A comparison of readability formulas. Reading in a Foreign Language, 23 (1), 84-102. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Dempsey, K., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Classifying paragraph types using linguistic features: Is paragraph positioning important? Journal of Writing Research, 3 (2), 119-143. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Shared features of L2 writing: Intergroup homogeneity and text classification. Journal of Second Language Writing, 20 (4), 271-285.[docx]

Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Understanding expert ratings of essay quality: Coh-Metrix analyses of first and second language writing. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long Learning, 21 (2/3), 170-191. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Weston, J., McLain Sullivan, S. T., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). The development of writing proficiency as a function of grade level: A linguistic analysis. WrittenCommunication, 28 (3), 282-311. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., & Salsbury, T. (2011). The development of lexical bundle accuracy and production in English second language speakers. IRAL: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 49 (1), 1-26. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T., McNamara, D. S., & Jarvis, S. (2011). Predicting lexical proficiency in language learners using computational indices. Language Testing, 28(4), 561-580. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T., McNamara, D. S., & Jarvis, S. (2011). What is lexical proficiency? Some answers from computational models of speech data. TESOL Quarterly, 45 (1), 182-193. [PDF]

Salsbury, T., Crossley, S. A, & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Psycholinguistic word information in second language oral discourse. Second Language Research, 26 (2). DOI: 10.1177/0267658310395851. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T., & McNamara, D. S. (2010). The role of lexical cohesive devices in triggering negotiations for meaning. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 18 (1), 55-80[PDF]

Crossley, S. A., & Salsbury, T. (2010). Using lexical indices to predict produced and not produced words in second language learners. The Mental Lexicon, 5 (1), 115-147. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T., & McNamara, D. S. (2010). The development of polysemy and frequency use in English second language speakers. Language Learning, 60 (3), 573-605. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T., & McNamara, D. S. (2010). The development of semantic relations in second language speakers: A case for Latent Semantic Analysis. Vigo International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 7, 55-74. [PDF]

McNamara, D. S., Crossley, S. A., & McCarthy, P. M.(2010). The linguistic features of quality writing. Written Communication, 27 (1), 57-86. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Louwerse, M., & McNamara, D. S. (2009). Identifying linguistic cues that distinguish text types: A comparison of first and second language speakers. Language Research, 42 (2), 361-381. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A. & McNamara, D. S. (2009). Computationally assessing lexical differences in second language writing. Journal of Second Language Writing17 (2), 119-135. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A, Salsbury, T., & McNamara, D. S. (2009). Measuring second language lexical growth using hypernymic relationships.Language Learning. 59 (2), 307-334. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A. (2008). The effects of genre analysis pedagogy: A corpus-based and situational analysis. Foreign Languages for Specific Purposes, 7, 20-35. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Greenfield, J., & McNamara, D. S. (2008). Assessing text readability using cognitively based indices. TESOL Quarterly, 42 (3), 475-493. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A. & McNamara, D. S. (2008).Assessing Second Language Reading Texts at the Intermediate Level: An approximate replication of Crossley, Louwerse, McCarthy, and McNamara (2007). Language Teaching, 41 (3), 409-229. [PDF]

Louwerse, M. M., Crossley, S. A., & Jeuniaux, P. (2008). What if? Conditionals in educational registers. Linguistics and Education19, 56-69. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A. (2007). A chronotopic approach to genre analysis: An exploratory study. English for Specific Purposes, 26 (1) 4-24. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A. & Louwerse, M. M. (2007). Multi-dimensional register classification using bi-grams. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics12, (4), 453-478. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Louwerse, M. M., McCarthy, P. M. & McNamara, D. S. (2007). A linguistic analysis of simplified and authentic texts. The Modern Language Journal, 91, (2) 15-30. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A. (2005). Metaphorical considerations in hip-hop music: Toward a better understanding of the hip-hop generation.African American Review, 9, (4) 501-512. [PDF]

Refereed Book Chapters

Baker, R.S. Wang, Y., Paquette, L., Aleven, V., Popsecu, O., Sewall, J., Rose, C., Tomar, G., Ferschke, O., Zhang, J., Cennamo, M., Ogden, S., Condit, T., Diaz, J., Crossley, S., McNamara, D., Comer, D., Lynch, C., Brown, R., Barnes, T., Bergner, Y. (in press) A MOOC on Educational Data Mining. To appear in ElAtia, S., Zaiane, O.R., Ipperciel, D. (Eds.) Handbook of Data Mining and Learning Analytics. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Crossley, S. A. (in press). Educational technologies and literacy development. In S. A. Crossley and D. S. McNamara (Eds.), Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). Adaptive Educational Technologies for Literacy Instruction. New York: Routledge.

Crossley, S. A., Allen, L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). Writing Pal: A writing strategy tutor. In S. A. Crossley and D. S. McNamara (Eds.), Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). Adaptive Educational Technologies for Literacy Instruction. New York: Routledge.

Frishkoff, G., Collins-Thompson, K., Nam, S., Hodges, L., & Crossley, S. A. (in press). Dynamic Support of Contextual Vocabulary Acquisition for Reading (DSCoVAR): An intelligent tutor for contextual word learning. In S. A. Crossley and D. S. McNamara (Eds.), Crossley, S. A., &

McNamara, D. S. (in press). Adaptive Educational Technologies for Literacy Instruction. New York: Routledge.Crossley, S. A., Allen, L., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). A multidimensional analysis of essay writing: What linguistic features tell us about situational parameters and the effects of language functions on judgments of quality. In T. B. Sardinha and M. V. Pinto (Eds.), Multi-Dimensional Analysis, 25 years on: A Tribute to Douglas Biber. (pp. 197-238). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.

Crossley, S. A., Feng, S., Cai, Z., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Computer simulations of MRC Psycholinguistics Database word properties: Concreteness, familiarity, and imagability. In M. Daller and S. Jarvis (Eds.), Vocabulary Knowledge: Human Ratings and Automated Measures. (pp. 135-156). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.

Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Validating lexical measures using human scores of lexical proficiency. In M. Daller and S. Jarvis (Eds.), Vocabulary Knowledge: Human Ratings and Automated Measures. (pp. 105-134) Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.

Crossley, S. A. (2012). Detection-based approaches: Methods, theories, and applications.  In S. Jarvis and S. A. Crossley (Eds.),Approaching Language Transfer through Text Classification: Explorations in the Detection-Based Approach. (pp. 178-189). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2012). A computational analysis of interlanguage talk: New approaches and applications. In P. M. McCarthy and C. Boonthum (Eds.), Applied natural language processing and content analysis: Identification, investigation, and resolution. (pp. 425-437). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2012). Detecting the first language of second language writers using automated indices of cohesion, lexical sophistication, syntactic complexity, and conceptual knowledge. In S. Jarvis and S. A. Crossley (Eds.),Approaching Language Transfer through Text Classification: Explorations in the Detection-Based Approach. (pp. 106-126). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Jarvis, S., Bestgen, Y., Crossley, S. A., Granger, S., Paquot, M. Thewissen, J. (2012). The comparative and combined contributions of N-grams, Coh-Metrix indices, and error types in the L1 classification of learner texts. In S. Jarvis and S. A. Crossley (Eds.), Approaching language transfer through text classification: Approaching Language Transfer through Text Classification: Explorations in the Detection-Based Approach. (pp. 154-157). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

McNamara, D. S., Raine, R., Roscoe, R., Crossley, S., Jackson, T., Dai, J., Cai, Z., Renner, A., Brandon, R., Weston, J., Dempsey, K., Lam, D., Kim, L., Rus, V., Floyd, R., McCarthy, P. M., Graesser, A. C. (2012). The Writing-Pal: Natural language algorithms to support intelligent tutoring on writing strategies. In P. M. McCarthy and C. Boonthum (Eds.),Applied natural language processing and content analysis: Identification, investigation, and resolution. (pp. 298-311). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Weston, J. L., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2012). Computational assessing human judgments of freewriting. In P. M. McCarthy and C. Boonthum (Eds.), Applied natural language processing and content analysis: Identification, investigation, and resolution.(pp. 365-382). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Anderson, T., & Crossley, S. A. (2011). Rue with a difference: A stylistic analysis of the rhetoric of suicide in Hamlet. In M. Ravassat & J. Culpeper (eds.), Shakespeare’s Language: Stylistic and Linguistic Approaches. (pp. 192-214). New York, NY: Continuum Press.

Refereed Conference Proceedings

Crossley, S. A., Dascalu, M., Trausan-Matu, S., Allen, L., & McNamara, D. S. (in press).  Document cohesion flow: Striving towards coherence. Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society.

Crossley, S. A, Kyle, K., Davenport, J., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). Automatic Assessment of Constructed Response Data in a Chemistry Tutor. Proceedings of the 9th International Educational Data Mining (EDM) Society Conference.

Popescu, Dascalu, M., & Crossley, S. A. (in press). Predicting Student Performance and Differences in Learning Styles based on Textual Complexity Indices applied on Blog and Microblog Posts. A Preliminary Study. Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT).

Dascalu, M., Popescu, E., Becheru, Alexandru, Crossley, S., & Trausan-Matu, S. (in press). Predicting Academic Performance Based on Students’ Blog and Microblog Posts. Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL 2016). Lyon, France: Springer.

Allen, L. K., Mills, C., Jacovina, M. E., Crossley, S. A., D’Mello, S. K., & McNamara, D. S. (2016). Investigating boredom and engagement during writing using multiple sources of information:  The essay, the writer, and keystrokes. Proceedings of the 6th International Learning Analytics and Knowledge (LAK) Conference. (pp. 114-123). New York, NY: ACM. doi: 10.1145/2883851.2883939 [pdf]

Crossley, S. A., Paquette, L., Dascalu, M., McNamara, D., & Baker, R. (2016). Combining Click-Stream Data with NLP Tools to Better Understand MOOC Completion. Proceedings of the 6th International Learning Analytics and Knowledge (LAK) Conference. (pp. 6-14). New York, NY: ACM. doi: 10.1145/2883851.2883931 [pdf]

Dascalu, M., McNamara, D.S., Crossley, S.A., & Trausan-Matu, S. (2016). Age of Exposure: A Model of Word Learning. Proceedings of the Proceedings of the Thirtieth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) Conference. (pp. 2928-2934) [pdf]

Allen, L., Crossley, S. A., Snow, E., Jacovina, M., Perret, C., & McNamara, D. (2015). Am I wrong or am I right? Gains in monitoring accuracy in an intelligent tutoring system for writing. In Conati, C., Heffernan, N., Mitrovic, A., & Verdejo, M.F. (eds.). Proceedings of the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference. (pp. 533-536). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. [pdf]

Allen, L., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2015). Predicting misalignments between teachers’ and students’ essay scores using natural language processing tools. In Conati, C., Heffernan, N., Mitrovic, A., & Verdejo, M.F. (eds.). Proceedings of the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference. (pp. 529-532). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. [pdf]

Crossley, S. A., Kim, Y., Lester, T., & Clark, S. (2015). Embodied cognition and passive processing: What hand-tracking tells us about syntactic processing in L1 and L2 speakers of English. In Dale, R., Jennings, C., Maglio, P., Matlock, T., Noelle, D., Warlaumony, A., & Yoshimi, J. (eds). Proceedings of the 37th Annual Cognitive Science Society Meeting. (pp. 495-500). [pdf]

Crossley, S. A., McNamara, D. S., Baker, R., Wang, Y., Paquette, L., Barnes, T., & Bergner, Y. (2015). Language to completion: Success in an educational data mining massive open online class. In Santos, O. C., Boticario, J. G., Romero, C., Pechenizkiy, M., Merceron, A., Mitros, P., Luna, J. M., Mihaescu, C., Moreno, P., Hershkovitz, A., Ventura, S., & Desmarais, M. (eds.) Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Educational Data Mining. (pp. 388-392). [pdf]

Crossley, S.A., Varner, L., Snow, E., & McNamara, D. S. (2015). Pssst… Textual Features… There is more to Automatic Essay Scoring than Just You! In Baron, J., Lynch, G., & Maziarz, N. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 5th International Learning Analytics and Knowledge Conference. (pp. 203-207). New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery. [pdf]

Crossley, S. A., Kyle, K., Allen, L, & McNamara, D. S. (2014). The Importance of Grammar and Mechanics in Writing Assessment and Instruction: Evidence from Data Mining. Stamper, J., Pardos, Z., Mavrikis, M., & McLaren, B.M. (Eds.). Proceedings of the 7th  Educational Data Mining (EDM) Conference. (pp. 300-303). Heidelberg, Berlin, Germany: Springer. [pdf]

Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). Developing Component Scores from Natural Language Processing Tools to Assess Human Ratings of Essay Quality. Eberle, W., & Boonthum-Denecke, C. (Eds.). Proceedings of the 27th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference. (pp. 381-386). Menlo Park, CA: The AAAI Press. [pdf]

Roscoe, R., Crossley, S. A., Snow, E., Varner, L., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). Writing Quality, Knowledge, and Comprehension Correlates of Human and Automated Essay Scoring. Eberle, W., & Boonthum-Denecke, C. (Eds.). Proceedings of the 27th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference. (pp. 393-398). Menlo Park, CA: The AAAI Press. [pdf]

Crossley, S. A., Defore, C., Kyle, K, Dai, J., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Paragraph specific N-Gram Approaches to Automatically Assessing Essay Quality. In D’Mello, S. K., Calvo, R. A., & Olney, A. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 6th Educational Data Mining (EDM) Conference. (pp. 216-220). Heidelberg, Berlin, Germany: Springer. [pdf]

Crossley, S. A., Roscoe, R., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Using automatic scoring models to detect changes in student writing in an intelligent tutoring system. In McCarthy, P. M. & Youngblood G. M., (Eds.). Proceedings of the 26th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference. (pp. 208-213). Menlo Park, CA: The AAAI Press.[pdf]

Crossley, S. A., Varner, L., Roscoe, R., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Using automated indices of cohesion to evaluate an intelligent tutoring system and an automated writing evaluation system. In Lane, H. C., Yacef, K., Mostow, J., & Pavlik, P. (Eds.). Proceedings of the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference. (pp. 269-278). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.[pdf]

Crossley, S. A., Varner, L., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Cohesion-based prompt effects in argumentative writing. In McCarthy, P. M. & Youngblood G. M., (Eds.). Proceedings of the 26th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference. (pp. 202-207). Menlo Park, CA: The AAAI Press. [pdf]

Collins-Thompson, K., Frishkoff, G., & Crossley, S. A. (2012). Definition response scoring with probabilistic ordinal regression. In B. Chang, S. Tan, T. Matsui, G. Biswas, LH Wong, T. Hirashima, & W. Chen (Eds).Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE). National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. [pdf]

Brandon, R., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2012). A linguistic analysis of expert-generated paraphrases. In McCarthy, P. M. & Youngblood G. M., (Eds.). Proceedings of the 25th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference. (pp. 268-271). Menlo Park, CA: The AAAI Press. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Cai, Z., & McNamara, D. S. (2012). Syntagmatic, paradigmatic, and automatic n-gram approaches to assessing essay quality. In McCarthy, P. M. & Youngblood G. M., (Eds.). Proceedings of the 25th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference. (pp. 214-219) Menlo Park, CA: The AAAI Press. [PDF]

Roscoe, R., Kugler, D., Crossley, S. A., Weston, J., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Developing pedagogically-guided threshold algorithms for intelligent automated essay feedback. In McCarthy, P. M. & Youngblood G. M., (Eds.).Proceedings of the 25th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference.(pp. 466-471) Menlo Park, CA: The AAAI Press. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2011).Text coherence and judgments of essay quality: Models of quality and coherence. In L. Carlson, C. Hoelscher, & T. F. Shipley (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. (pp. 1236-1241). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Roscoe, R. D., & McNamara, D. S. (2011) Predicting human scores of essay quality using computational indices of linguistic and textual features. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education. [PDF]

Feng, S., Cai, Z., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Simulating human ratings on word concreteness. In R. C. Murray & P. M. McCarthy (Eds.), Proceedings of the 24thInternational Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference (pp. 245-250). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. [PDF]

Raine, R. B., Mintz, L., Crossley, S. A., Dai, J., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Text box size, skill, and iterative practice in a writing task. In R. C. Murray & P. M. McCarthy (Eds.),Proceedings of the 24th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference (pp. 537-542). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. [PDF]

Roscoe, R. D., Crossley, S. A., Weston, J. L., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Automated assessment of paragraph quality: Introductions, body, and conclusion paragraphs. In R. C. Murray & P. M. McCarthy (Eds.), Proceedings of the 24thInternational Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference (pp. 281-286). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. [PDF]

Roscoe, R. D., Varner, L. K., Cai, Z., Weston, J. L., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Internal usability testing of automated essay feedback in an intelligent writing tutor. In R. C. Murray & P. M. McCarthy (Eds.),Proceedings of the 24th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference (pp. 543-548). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. [PDF]

Rus, V., Feng, S., Brandon, R., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). A linguistic analysis of student-generated paraphrases. In R. C. Murray & P. M. McCarthy (Eds.),Proceedings of the 24th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference (pp. 293-298). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. [PDF]

Weston, J. L., Crossley, S. A., McCarthy, P. M., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Number of words versus number of ideas: Finding a better predictor of writing quality. In R. C. Murray & P. M. McCarthy (Eds.), Proceedings of the 24th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference (pp. 335-340). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A. & McNamara, D. S. (2010). Cohesion, coherence, and expert evaluations of writing proficiency. In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (Eds.),Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 984-989). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2010).Interlanguage talk: What can breadth of knowledge features tell us about input and output differences? Proceedings of the 23rdInternational Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society. [PDF]

Weston, J. L., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2010). Towards a computational assessment of freewriting quality.Proceedings of the 23rd International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Boggess, G., & Salsbury, T. (2009). Exploring Lexical Network Development in Second Language Learners. . In C.H. Lane & H.W. Guesgen (Eds.), Proceedings of the 22nd International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (pp. 225-230).Menlo Park, CA: The AAAI Press. [PDF]

Duran, N. D., Crossley, S.A., Hall, C., McCarthy, P.M., & McNamara, D.S. (2009). Expanding a catalogue of deceptive linguistic features with NLP technologies. In C.H. Lane & H.W. Guesgen (Eds.), Proceedings of the 22ndInternational Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (pp. 243-248). Menlo Park, CA: The AAAI Press. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T. McCarthy, P. M. & McNamara, D. S. (2008). Using Latent Semantic Analysis to explore second language lexical development. In D. Wilson & G. Sutcliffe (Eds.), Proceedings of the 21stInternational Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (pp. 136-141). Menlo Park, California: AAAI Press. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T., McCarthy, P. M., & McNamara, D. S. (2008) LSA as a measure of second language natural discourse. In V. Sloutsky, B. Love, and K. McRae (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1906-1911). Washington, D.C.: Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]

McCarthy, P. M., Rus, V., Crossley, S. A., Graesser, A. C., & McNamara, D. S. (2008). Assessing forward-, reverse-, and average entailment indices on natural language input from the intelligent tutoring system, iSTART. In D. Wilson & G. Sutcliffe (Eds.), Proceedings of the 21st International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (pp. 165-170). Menlo Park, California: AAAI Press. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Dufty, D. F., McCarthy, P. M., & McNamara, D. S. (2007). Toward a new readability: A mixed model approach. In D.S. McNamara and G. Trafton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 197-202). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., McCarthy, P. M. & McNamara, D. S. (2007). Discriminating between second language learning text-types. In D. Wilson & G. Sutcliffe (Eds.), Proceedings of the 20th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (pp. 205-210). Menlo Park, California: AAAI Press.[PDF]

McCarthy, P. M., Rus, V., Crossley, S. A., Bigham, S. C., Graesser, A. C. & McNamara, D. S. (2007). Assessing entailer with a corpus of natural language from an intelligent tutoring system. In D. Wilson & G. Sutcliffe (Eds.),Proceedings of the 20th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (pp. 247-252). Menlo Park, California: AAAI Press. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., McCarthy, P. M., Lewis, G. A., Dufty, D. F., Louwerse, M. M. & McNamara, D. S. (2006). Detecting manipulated second language learning texts. In R. Sun & N. Miyake (Eds.), Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2463). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Louwerse, M. M. & Crossley, S. A. (2006). Dialog act classification using N-Gram algorithms.  In G. Sutcliffe & R. Goebel (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (pp. 758-763). Menlo Park, California: AAAI Press. [PDF]